CHRIST ABOVE THE ANGELS.
HEB. 1:5 – 2:4.
I CONTINUE the argument of the apostle to prove that Jesus is exalted above the angels. He began with the second psalm, in which, based upon the promise which God gave unto David, and which is recorded in the second book of Samuel, the glory of the Messiah, as the omnipotent King of all nations, appointed and upheld by the Father, is described, founded as it is upon the eternal and essential Sonship which was manifested in His resurrection from the dead. Well known was this psalm among the Jews, and well understood was it that it spoke of the divine dignity of the Messiah; for it was in the light of this psalm that Nathanael, as soon as Jesus manifested Himself unto Him as the searcher of hearts, exclaimed, " Rabbi, thou art the Son of God; thou art the King of Israel." It was on the basis of this psalm that the high priest adjured Jesus to tell him whether He was the Christ, the Son of the living God.*[I] Nathanael and all Israelites’ knew that the Messiah, who was to be King, was to be in the dignity and glory of the Son of God. As in the second Psalm the Son of David is addressed in a way in which God never spoke to any of the angels, so in the 97th Psalm, which describes the coming, or in New Testament light the return, of Messiah to earth, He is said to be Lord and King, and all angels are commanded to worship Him. The 97th Psalm speaks of the advent of the Messiah, which is yet in the future, to which both the believing synagogue and the Church of the Lord Jesus Christ are looking, when He is to be manifested in great power, and to be acknowledged as King of the whole earth. Fire and darkness go before Him, and He shall execute judgment upon the nations, and divide the idolaters from the faithful, and the wicked from the godly. For in this _ psalm the world is described as in the same condition as that referred to in the book of the Revelation. When Jehovah comes, the man who is to be the Lord and King of the whole earth (as is said also in Zechariah and all the prophets), then shall all idolaters be confounded, and they that are upright in heart shall enter into the harvest of light. And so in the book of Revelation, His own people are they who have not worshipped the beast and yielded to idolatry; whereas all the rest of the world shall have fallen away both from the Son and from the Father. In our own day, religious questions begin to concentric on this point—Is God the Creator? or is there no God ? Men, who deny that Jesus is the Son, begin to deny the Father also.
The apostle reminds us, that while Jesus is thus spoken of, as the Son, the angels are only the swift and penetrating messengers in obedience to the power and will of God. He proceeds to another psalm, the 45th, and he asks the question : " To which of the angels said He at any time, Thy throne, 0 God, is for ever and ever : a sceptre of righteousness is the sceptre of thy kingdom ?" That 45th Psalm is unique among all the Psalms of David. It is the germ of the Song of Solomon. If there is a doubt whether the Song of Solomon refers to Jehovah in His covenant relation to His people, then it must likewise be doubtful whether this 45th Psalm refers to the Bridegroom, who is to be the divine Man, the Lord of Israel; and if not, it is impossible to explain how this psalm finds its way into a collection of hymns, whose great and constant theme is God as King and Lord of Israel and the nations. But we see from the opening verses that it is a mysterious psalm, and that here, as in all the Scriptures, we have to search and dig below the surface, that we may discover the hidden treasure of pure gold which rewards those who pray to behold the wonders of God's teaching.
The author of the psalm is himself astonished at the wonderful, beautiful, and multitudinous thoughts which rose within his heart, and looks upon them as given to him by a higher power, he feels that he is carried away by a mighty afflatus, by a powerful tide, that he is only the pen of a ready writer; and he begins to consider the thoughts which are in him, but not of him. His heart is overflowing with the abundance of the revelation which the Lord God is giving unto him. Then he beholds in the Spirit one who is beautiful and fair, a true and real man, yet free from all imperfection and all defilement; in whom there is that true beauty of holiness and uprightness which manifests itself in words of truth and grace, poured into His lips. And this holy and lovely One, although He belongs to the human race, is yet not of them, but stands quite by Him-self, and towers high above them, even as heaven is above earth. He is One with us, yet above all the children of Adam. He is also the mighty One, El Gibbor, the mighty God, who (compare Isa. ix. 6) subdues all enemies by that meekness and righteousness which He introduces into the world. And because He loved righteousness and hated iniquity, therefore God anointed Him with the oil of gladness above His fellows; or, in New Testament language, "because He was obedient unto death, even the death of the cross, therefore God highly exalted Him." The Son of man is the Christ; He is anointed with the Holy Ghost, the oil of gladness, above all His equals. As He speaks also in the prophet Isaiah, " The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me, because He hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; He hath sent me to heal the brokenhearted, to pro-claim liberty to the captives; to give to them that mourn beauty for ashes, the oil of joy for mourning, the garment of praise for the spirit of heaviness." The psalm thus reveals unto us the mystery of the Trinity—the Son, God and man in one person, " fairer than any of the children of men," obedient unto death, exalted by the Father, and anointed by the Holy Ghost. God the Father thus addresses the Son of man—" Thy throne, 0 God, is LA- ever and ever ; a sceptre of righteousness is the sceptre of thy kingdom." *[II]
To which of the angels was ever language addressed as unto this One, who indeed is born of a woman, the Son of man, a descendant of David, who lived upon earth the servant of God, honoring the law of Moses, and obedient to all the commandments of God ? But to Him the Father has given a throne and a sceptre for ever, and speaks to Him as His equal from all eternity unto all ages.
But the apostle continues by quoting another psalm. Christ is in all the psalms; they speak of Him. The divinity and humanity of the Lord are set forth in all the Scriptures. It is the delight of the Father, in all the Word, to honor the Son, even as it is the delight of the Son continually to point to the Father that we may see His glory. The apostle refers to the 102nd Psalm —a psalm which, without apostolic teaching, I doubt if any of us would have had the boldness so to apply; for in many respects it is the most remarkable of all the psalms—the psalm of the afflicted One while His soul is overwhelmed within Him in great affliction, and sorrow, and anxious fear. He has been righteous, He has been holy; but men persecute Him. He is forsaken, His tears are His meat day and night, and yet God had exalted Him. God had shown unto Him that He was His chosen One ; God had prospered Him up to a certain point ; He upheld Him, carried Him through, sustained and honored Him, caused His work to prosper and His word to bring forth fruit. But then, instead of entering into glory, He felt that His path was shut up, that all His people forsook Him and rejected Him; that in-stead of light there was darkness; that instead of a throne there was the cross before Him. God had lifted Him up, given Him power, given Him the hearts of His people. God had for thirty-three years continually said unto Him, “Thou art my Son. Thou art my servant, whom I uphold; mine elect, in whom my soul is well pleased;" and at last, in the middle of His days, before His work was completed, He was to be cut off. Persecution and dismay, and the unbelief of the people, met Him; and His soul was “exceeding sorrowful, even unto death." The shadow of the cross fell into His heart, and His soul was straitened within Him.
Thus, in the 12th chapter of the gospel of John, we read that His soul was sorrowful in the anticipation of that hour, for the sake of which He had come into the world. Thus it was in the garden of Gethsemane, and yet He knew and believed that God would deliver Him. And when this afflicted One pours out His heart He says, " Thou wilt arise, and have mercy upon Zion. The time to favor her, the appointed time, will come." He rests with firm faith on the promises of God, in which light and glory are secured to Israel. God's counsel must stand, His counsel must be fulfilled. Then it is that God the Father replies to Him, “Thou, Lord, in the be-ginning hast laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works of thine hands." *[III] Then it is that God the Father replies with this word of assurance to this afflicted, mourning, distressed One, reminding Him that although for a little season He has become a servant, and entered into darkness and sorrow, though He has humbled Himself, and feels like David, " I am a worm and not a man," yet is He none other but the Lord, the Word, the Creator of heaven and earth. He was in the beginning with the Father, when the word went forth from God to lay the foundations of the earth. By Him also the heavens were framed. He is the Eternal, the First and the Last, who shall remain the same for ever. Although the elements shall melt away, and the heavens and earth be moved ; although the world in its present phase shall pass away and be put off like an old vesture, yet this suffering One is the Lord ; He is the same, and His years fail not.*[IV]
How marvellous is this! how incomprehensible this union of divine and human, of eternity and time, sadness and omnipotence ! Do not wonder that such language of anguish, faintness, and sorrow, of agonising faith, is attributed by the Holy Ghost to Jesus. Remember that the life of Jesus was a life of faith, a real, true, and earnest conflict; that " He is the author and finisher of faith;" and that, although He continually took firm hold of the promises of God, yet His feeling of sorrow, His sense of His utter dependence on God, His anxious looking forward to His last sufferings, all this was a reality. He gained the victory by faith; He knew that He was through suffering returning to the Father; He knew that as Son of man and Redeemer of His people He would be glorified with the glory which He had with the Father before the foundations of the world were laid. To which of the angels said God at any time, as He said to the meek and lowly Jesus, "'Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundations of the earth”? *[V]
And lastly the apostle quotes the short but most comprehensive 110th Psalm. Of all the psalms it is most frequently quoted in the New Testament. Martin Luther says this is " Der Haupt Psalm "—the chief psalm, the head psalm, the psalm which was the greatest strength and consolation to him, as it ought to be to all God's people. " The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool."
The Jews in the time of Jesus all knew that this psalm referred to the Messiah. There was not the slightest doubt about this. Hence our blessed Saviour asks them this question—How is it that David, speaking of the Messiah, in the Spirit, by the Holy Ghost, calls Him Lord, if He is his Son ? Here was a dilemma. The 110th Psalm refers to the Messiah; how then does David call Him Lord ? In three of the gospels is this passage quoted; and the question of our Saviour is so important and so much a leading central one that all the (synoptic) evangelists reported it. Christ always referred the Scripture unto the Holy Ghost, and in this pas-sage He does so explicitly —" David in the Spirit;" that is to say, when by the Holy Ghost there were revealed to him eternal truths. It was impossible for man's mind, unassisted, to know what is declared in this psalm, to rise to this height, and to have the comprehensive view opened to us here. Peter, in his sermon on the day of Pentecost (and it is to be noticed that that great model and typical sermon was nothing else but unfolding of Scripture), says to the Jews, “David did not ascend into the heavens." The Jews regarded David with the most profound veneration. They felt that Messiah was, in a peculiar sense, connected with their great king. The apostle is almost afraid to refer to David's death and burial. And therefore he says, “Let me freely speak unto you of our father David ; that he is dead and buried, and his sepulchre is with us unto this day." But as a prophet, and knowing the promise of the Son of David—the Messiah—he said, “The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand." This is the passage*[VI] that the apostle Paul afterwards expounds so fully in our epistle, showing from it the peculiar glory of the priesthood of Jesus as the true Melchizedec. On this psalm are based the expressions of the epistles on the ascension of Christ. *[VII] What does it mean? That the Son of man, the Son of David, was to be exalted by God high above all things, and that He was to be placed upon the throne as His equal, endowed with all might and all dominion. And thus it is that our blessed Saviour says, “All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth;" and thus is it that He ascended high above all heavens, in order that in His humanity as well as in His divinity He might govern and fill all things. “Unto which of the angels said He at any time, as unto Jesus, Sit thou on my right hand?”
But now you may ask, Why does the apostle speak about the angels? He has shown from the 2nd Psalm, from the 97th Psalm, from 2 Samuel vii., from Chronicles, from the 110th Psalm, most clearly that this man Jesus is none else but God, Lord, of infinite and eternal Majesty ; and that, therefore, in His humanity also He is highly exalted above all angels. But what is the point of this comparison? What is its importance and the inference to be drawn from it? The argument is simply this: the old dispensation, the law, was given by the mediation and administration of angels. I Jesus was above angels, then His dispensation, the new covenant, His priesthood, are high above that of the law.
The Jews thought much about the angels. As Stephen said, and the apostle teaches in the epistle to the Galatians, the angels were connected with the giving of the law: “The chariots of God are twenty thousand, even thousands of angels. The Lord is among them, as in the holy place of Sinai." The chariots of God do not consist of anything that is material and inanimate. Intelligent living worshippers, loving and obedient spirits, are the chariots upon which God moves. Thus, in the ancient prayer of the synagogue, the angels are called the Ophanim, or the wheels. Stephen says, “You have received the law by the disposition of angels." In the epistle to the Galatians, Paul reminds them that "the law was given through the administration of angels."
Scripture speaks often of the angels. Let me remind you of some of the doctrines which the Bible contains concerning them.
In the first place, human beings know nothing about angels, except what God pleases' to tell them. Hence all that human poets have imagined about them is of no importance or value, unless it agrees with the record of the divine Scripture.
With regard to the angels, I may notice three tendencies to error. The first tendency to error we see in the epistle to the Colossians, and we may call it " the Gnostic error," when men, following their own speculative reason, endeavor to penetrate mysteries which are not revealed to us, and form erroneous views of the angels as to their nature, and their relation to God and to Christ.
Secondly, the Romish error, according to which the angels are placed in a false mediatory position, and are invoked, when men rely upon their inter-cession, or call upon their aid. The only case recorded in Scripture of the angels being invoked in any way is when David calls upon them to bless the Lord, and with His other creatures to exalt Him, their God and our God. And the third tendency is what I may call the Protestant one—to think too rarely and in too isolated a manner about them; not to consider sufficiently what is said about them in Scripture, and not to feel and remember vividly that they are constantly with us, that we and they are members of one great Family, and that the angelic worship and the worship of the church are harmonious.
Now Scripture tells us of the angels only, as it were, incidentally. It is as if some one who dwells in a great and vast realm, but who does not think it wise, necessary, or salutary to give us full and systematic knowledge of it, occasionally, as we require it, lifts the curtain, and gives us a glimpse of the perfect and harmonious whole of that world in which He is enthroned.
Notice the multitude of angels: "We have come to an innumerable company of angels." In the book of Revelation it speaks of “myriads, tens of thousands, and thousands of thousands," millions of angels. In the gospel of Luke "the multitude of the heavenly host" praise God, and announce in songs of gladness the Saviour's birth to the shepherds. An immense, countless multitude of angels 1 Let our minds expand to the idea Let the innumerable company of angelic beings who have loved and served God for thou-sands of years show us how grand is that world in which we live, and in which this poor earth, on account of the blood of Jesus—the Son. of God—which redeemed it, is the dearest spot. This in-numerable multitude is a polity, a state. There are gradations in it, groups, orders, legions of angels. “Jacob called the name of the place Mahanaim." There are the cherubim and the seraphim; thrones and dominions. There is Michael the defender, the champion of God's people, especially called forth in the latter days. We read of the archangel, whose voice shall be heard when the Lord Himself shall descend from heaven. There is a kingdom with gradations, with order. This kingdom is intimately connected with the kingdom of grace. Jesus tells us every day to think of this connection and harmony. He teaches us to pray, “Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven." When a sinner is converted, the angels rejoice; and when Jesus comes again, the angels will come with Him. There is only one kingdom of angels and men; and all that God has created form one wonderful united whole. We cannot see the angels; not because they are invisible; for we could see them at this moment if God saw fit to open our eyes. The things which are true, substantial, lasting, and real, are things as yet in-visible, and apprehended only by faith. They will last for ever, though they are not yet seen by us; and when all that is unreal and shadowy shall disappear, then they shall be made visible at the appearing of our great God and Saviour. Whenever there is a crisis in the history of God's kingdom the angels appear, as at the giving of the law, and at the incarnation of the Son of God. Thus we read of angelic manifestations before and after the birth of Jesus. The Son of man often speaks of and always beholds the angels. In the garden of Gethsemane an angel appears to strengthen Him, and angels appear to the disciples at the resurrection and at the ascension of the Saviour. When He comes again multitudes of angels shall come with Him and separate the evil from the good; before the angels Jesus shall confess His people.
Angels are connected not merely with salvation and with the spiritual kingdom of God, but with all the kingdom of God; with all physical phenomena. There was an earthquake at His resurrection. Why? Because angels had been and rolled away the stone. The Pool of Siloam had miraculous powers; “for an angel came down at certain seasons and troubled the water," and endowed it with healing power. The angels carry on every development in nature. God does not move and rule the world merely by laws and principles, by unconscious and inanimate powers, but by living beings full of light and love. His angels are like flames of fire; they have charge over the winds, and the earth, and the trees, and the sea. Through the angels He carries on the government of the world. And these angels, whom God has made so glorious, who excel in strength, hearken to the voice of His commandment and obey Him, while they in worship continually behold the countenance of the Father. They are always ascribing glory and praise, and constantly adoring with joy and wonder the glory of God as it is revealed in the Lamb that was slain, and made manifest in the Church of Christ. For as Christ is the centre, so the church is exalted in Him that in the church the manifold wisdom of God may be made known to principalities and powers.
Now, glorious as the angels are, they are in subjection to Jesus as man; for in His human nature God has enthroned Him above all things. Their relation to Jesus fixes also their relation to us. In a great house there may tie many servants who are honored, trusted, and beloved; but the position of the little child who is the heir is different, though as yet he is inferior in knowledge, strength, and attainments. “Are they not all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for those who shall be heirs of salvation?" You who are the children of God, begotten by the Holy Ghost, you are the brethren of Jesus; for “He took not hold of angels, but in His great love He took hold of the seed of Abraham." You are the future kings and rulers, and unto man in Christ all things are put in subjection, as it is said in the 8th Psalm: “Are they not all ministering spirits?" They love us. We know it, because they showed a most unselfish and tender interest in our salvation. When Jesus descended from heaven, and visited our earth, so far from being filled with envy, they rejoiced, and with great alacrity came down and brought the glad tidings to the shepherds. With joy they also announced that Jesus is risen, that He is exalted, that Son of man whom—O mystery of mysteries!—they had seen agonizing in the garden, who was then strengthened by an angel; whom they had beheld on the cross. How glad were they to roll away the stone; how rejoiced when they saw Him exalted above the heavens; how tenderly they expressed their sympathy with the sorrowing women; “for I know that ye seek Jesus which was crucified. He is not here : for He is risen, as He said." We know they love us; for they rejoice when a poor, fallen, degraded sinner turns from ungodliness and takes hold of salvation as it is in Jesus. They watch us in our dangers, in our difficulties. “God has given His angels charge over us, to keep us in all our ways, lest we dash our foot against a stone." They are astonished, and marvel when they see Lazarus in his poverty, in pain, in distress, despised and forgotten by man. Day by day they watch his patience, his faith, his trustful cleaving unto God, and eagerly they learn from him more and more of the mystery of suffering, and of man's fellowship with Jesus ; and lovingly they wait for the appointed hour, when, delivered from the body of pain and death, they carry him safely, and gently, and swiftly into Abraham's bosom. And after having ministered unto God's people to the end of this age, they shall rejoice when they hear His voice saying unto the children, "Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world."
For Jesus' sake, "are they not all ministering spirits?" Oh, how great is Jesus! How great is the covenant of grace! How great is the glory of the Son, and how wonderful is our position as children of the Father!
And now, brethren, the apostle is not able to continue his argument without first giving vent to his feeling of solemn anxiety about our salvation, and exhorting us earnestly and affectionately. We ought to give the more earnest heed to the things which we have heard. So great a salvation has been revealed to us; salvation which has its origin In eternal depths of love; salvation which is built upon the rock, even the sufferings and resurrection of Jesus the Son of God; salvation which is con-summated in glory, greater and higher than that of the angels, by which the highest position is given to us among all creatures in the kingdom of God. If so great salvation is neglected—I do not say rejected or treated with contempt and unbelief ; but if it is neglected ; if we do not rise to the height of this argument ; if the love of God does not melt our hearts ; if we do not think salvation the one thing that is necessary, important, essential ; if we do not devote to it our whole heart, our whole soul, all our energies; if we do not strive to grasp it with all our might, concentrating all our earnestness and strength, how shall we escape ? Jesus has Himself declared and brought it; God the Father has ratified it and sealed it; the Holy Ghost has confirmed it with His gifts and wonders. It is the ultimate revelation of God; it is the unspeakable gift of His love, according to His eternal purpose.
Have we this first chapter? Is it ours? Do we possess it? Can we say, " I will go with this into eternity ; " I believe it from my heart ; it is a treasure to my own soul ; I stand upon this rock ; I hear His voice in the Son, and therefore I can go to Him with child-like confidence? Let me sum up, and apply the teaching of this chapter in four questions. Do we worship Jesus? In this chapter He is called by divine names, the Son, Lord, God. Divine works are assigned to Him; the creation of the world, the upholding of all things, the atonement upon the cross, and the government now from the right hand of the Majesty. Divine attributes are given to Him; He is omniscient, He is omnipotent, He is unchangeable, He is eternal. Divine worship is accorded to Him. God the Father Himself commands the angels to worship Him. Do you worship Jesus, Jesus the Son of David, who was crucified upon the cross? Have you learnt, like Thomas, to say unto Him, “My Lord and my God"?
The second question is this: Do you know truth? Do you belong unto the generality, the majority of this world, who think that one religion is as good and true as another, one religious opinion not more valuable or certain than another? Have you the truth, the one truth? Do we know that God, who has spoken in times past by the prophets, has now spoken unto us fully, clearly, and finally in His Son? Jesus saith: “I am the truth; “we have received the true, real, full, perfect, ultimate revelation of the mind of God in Jesus Christ His Son. Oh, what a blessed thing it is when, instead of being tossed to and fro by every wind of doctrine, and instead of depending upon the wisdom and ingenuity of human reason, we have this rock—God hath spoken; in Jesus hath God spoken!
The third question I ask—Are you free from all your sins? Are they all forgiven? Are you forgiven? Jesus has purged away our sins by one sacrifice upon the cross. "The blood of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, cleanseth from all sin." Of Him all the prophets witness, all the apostles witness, and the angels witness, and God the Father, God the Son, and the Holy Ghost witness, that "Whosoever believeth in Him has," that moment, "the perfect absolution, remission, and forgiveness of all sins," and is pure and spot-less in the sight of God. Do you believe that Jesus who died on the cross is now at the right hand of God? Oh, then, understand also the full meaning of David's word—"With God is forgiveness of sins, that He may be feared!" As we were crucified together with Jesus, so, in consequence of our justification, Jesus was raised and we are accepted in the Beloved. We are now free from sin, and in the presence of God. In Christ we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins. He hath taken away all our transgressions.
Lastly, Do you know that Jesus, your Saviour, your Lord, your God, is at the right hand of God, and that you are the brethren of Jesus and the children of the Father, and the heirs of the kingdom? Do you live in the hope that you will behold Him, that you will see Jesus as He is, and that then you will be like Him? And having this hope in you, do you purify yourselves even as He is pure? Oh, live in the love of God! Live on the love of God! Live from the love of God! Start with the fullness of God's love in Jesus Christ! Never be tempted to go back again to the terrors or to the method of the law! Never be tempted to look again to anything else but the blood of Jesus, which taketh away all sin! And each time you go to the Lord's Table and commemorate the dying love of Christ, say to yourself, "Now I am showing to all the world the death of the Lord; that He has finished the work, that salvation is perfect, that He has offered a complete, all-sufficient, and full atonement." Rejoice that Christ is here who was crucified yea, rather, who is risen again, and that we who believe are the body of Christ, one with Him for evermore. Who is he that will condemn or that will separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus? He who died for us is none else than the Son of the Most High!
May the Lord grant unto us "that we may know Jesus, and the power of His resurrection, and the fellowship of His sufferings; that we may be made conformable unto His death;" and that we may attain unto the glory of the first resurrection when the heirs of salvation shall be made manifest with Jesus Himself. Amen.
[I] * Hales says the sole application of this illustrious prophecy to the Messiah was the unquestionable doctrine of the primitive Jewish Church. He adds a few quotations: " Our masters deliver, that the blessed God said unto Messiah, Son of David (who is shortly to be revealed in our days), `Ask of me somewhat, and I will give it thee,' as it is said in Psalm ii. 7, 8." The Midrash Tillim understands the Gentiles of Gog and Magog, and states that Messiah is styled "my Son," and not "a Son to me;" that is, absolutely and not relatively, as in Nathan's prophecy.
Jarchi affirms, that whatever is sung in this psalm our masters interpreted of Messiah the King; but "according to the sound of the words, and for the confusion of the heretics (i.e. Christians), it is convenient that we expound it of David."—From Vise. MANDERVILLE’S HORA HEBRAICA.
[II] * There is abundant evidence to prove that the Jews applied this psalm to Messiah. Stier says: "We cannot enter into controversy with those who see in this psalm only a marriage song or hymn to an earthly king, without first discussing the general principles of Scripture faith... “This psalm is not isolated in the Bible. (Comp. Isa. 54: 5; 62: 5; Jer. 3:1; Ezek. 16: 8; Hosea and Canticles passim; John 3:29; Matt. 11: 25; Matt. 22; Mat 25; Eph. 5: 32 ; 2 Cor. 11:2 ; Rev. 19:21.) Gibbor is a title of Messiah. He is mighty to save. Compare also with verse 6 the Jewish tradition: " We have heard that Christ abideth for ever." (John 12:34.)
[III] * Stier: The Messiah receives here the mighty answer of God, 'It is impossible for Thee to succumb; for Thou art the Living One with me from all eternity.' Christ is here presented as Creator; He is Lord (Jehovah) ; the earth is His and the fullness thereof.
[IV] * In Hora Hebraica, already quoted, interesting extracts are given (pp. 100-102) to prove that the ancient Jews referred this psalm to Messiah and His days. On verse 27," But thou art He," the Jews say that Ani and Attah and Hu, I and Thou and He, are names of God denoting three persons ; and their anthem, publicly sung on the last day of their feast of tabernacles, is, "For thy sake, 0 our Creator Hosanna ; for thy sake, 0 our Redeemer Hosanna ; for thy sake, 0 our Seeker Hosanna!" as if, says Bishop Patrick, they beseeched the blessed Trinity to save them and send them help.
[V] * Kurtz sums up the contrast between the angels and the Lord Jesus: (1) The angels are servants in the kingdom; the Son has a throne, and is therefore Ruler. (2) They work in the shape or power of the lower elements (wind and fire); He by the moral power of righteousness. (3) Their work is changing and transitory; Christ's rule immutable and eternal.
[VI] * "A Moonshee in India noticed that David, though himself a prophet and king, spoke here of another as his Lord. He was anxious to know who was meant He afterwards read in Isaiah of One who suffered on account of our sins. He was anxious to know who was meant by this description. When some time after he read the creed of the Christian Church—'Crucified, dead, and buried; the third clay He rose from the dead, ascended into heaven, sitteth at the right hand of God,' it flashed across his mind that Jesus is He of whom David speaks in the '110th Psalm."—Quoted in RICHTER'S Haurbibel. (Ps. 110.)
[VII] * Eph. 1:20: "When He raised Him from the dead, and set Him at His own right hand in the heavenly places." And again, 1Cor 15:27 "For He hath put all things under His feet"